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World Meteorological Organization Global Weather & Climate Extremes Archive

Global Weather & Climate Extremes

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World Weather Element World Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Site Observations Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
Temperature Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7 (July) /1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179ft) )
Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-128.6°F) 21/7 (July) /1983 1912- present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11,220 ft)
Pressure Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Below 750m 1083.8 hPa 31/12 (December) /1968 1961- present Agata, Russia 66°53'N, 93°28'E 261m (856.3ft)
Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Above 750m 1089.1 hPa 30/12 (December) /2004 1963- present Tosontsengel Mongolia 48°44'N, 98°16'E 1724.6m (5658.1 ft)
Lowest Sea Lvl Air Pressure (excluding tornadoes) 870 hPa 12/10 (October) /1979 1951- present Eye of Typhoon Tip 16°44'N, 137°46'E 0m
Rainfall Greatest 1-Min Rainfall 31.2mm (1.23") 4/7 (July) /1956 1948- present Unionville, MD, USA 38°48'N, 76°08'W 152m (499ft)
Greatest 60-Min Rainfall 305mm (12.0") 22/6 (June) /1947   Holt, MO, USA 39°27'N, 94°20'W 263m (863ft)
Greatest 12-Hr Rainfall 1.144 m (45.0'') 7-8/1 (January) /1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 24-Hr Rainfall 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1 (January) /1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 48-Hr Rainfall 2.493m (98.15") 15-16/6 (June) /1995 1850-present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
Greatest 72-Hr Rainfall 3.930m (154.72") 24-26/2 (February) /2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 96-Hr Rainfall 4.936m (194.33") 24-27/2 (February) /2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 12-Mo Rainfall 26.47m (1042") 8 (August)/1860-7 (July)/1861 1851- present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
Hail Heaviest Hailstone 1.02kg (2.25lb) 14/4 (April) /1986   Gopalganj district, Bangladesh 23°00'N, 89°56'E 4m (13.1ft)
Aridity Longest Dry Period 173 months 10 (November)/1903-1 (January)/1918   Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213ft)
Wind Maximum Gust 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4 (April) /1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Maximum Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4 (April) /1996 1949-present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Lightning Longest Distance Lightning Flash 321 kilometers (199.5 mi) 06:07:22 UTC 20/6 (June)/2007 limited field measurement Oklahoma, United States 35.86°N;, 96.32°W; to 36.00°N; 99.63°W;
Longest Duration Lightning Flash 7.74 seconds 04:18:50 UTC, 30/8 (August) 2012 limited field measurement Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France 44.06°N;, 4.5°E; to 43.6°N; 6.0°E;
Weather-Related Mortality Highest Mortality: Lightning 469 individuals 2/11 (Nov)/1994 1873-present Dronka, Egypt 27.2°N;, 31.0°W;
Highest Mortality: Lightning (single stroke) 21 individuals 23/12 (Dec)/1975 1873-present Manica Tribal Trust Lands, Zimbabwe 22.30°S;, 30.2°E;
Highest Mortality: Tropical Cyclone estimated 300,000 individuals 12-13/11 (Nov)/1970 1873-present coastal Bangladesh 22.3°N;, 91.8°W;
Highest Mortality: Tornado estimated 1,300 individuals 26 /4 (April) /1989 1873-present Manikganj district, Bangladesh 22.80°S;, 90.1°E;
Highest Mortality: Hailstorm 246 individuals 20/4 (April)/1888 1873-present Moradabad, India 28.80°S;, 78.8°E;

Hemispheric Weather & Climate Extremes

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Hemisphere Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
Northern Hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7 (July)/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'@ -54m (-179ft) )
Southern Hemisphere Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1 (January)/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
Eastern Hemisphere Highest Temperature 55.0°C (131°F) 7/7 (July)/1931 unknown Kebili, Tunisia 33°42'N, 8°58'E 38.1m (125ft)
Western Hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7 (July) /1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
Northern Hemisphere Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2 (February)/1892, 7/2 (February)/1892
2. 6/2 (January)/1933
1. Verkhoyansk, Russia
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
Southern Hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-128.6°F) 21/7 (July)/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
Eastern Hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-128.6°F) 21/7 (July)/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
Western Hemisphere Lowest Temperature -66.1°C (-87°F) 9/1 (January)/1954 11/1952-6/1954 Northice, Greenland 78°04'N, 38°29'W 2341m (7680 ft)
Northern Hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10 (November)/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
Southern Hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1 (January)/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
Eastern Hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1 (January)/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
Western Hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10 (October)/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
Eastern Hemisphere Heaviest Hailstone 1.02kg (2.25lb) 14/4 (April)/1986   Gopalganj district, Bangladesh 23°00'N, 89°56'E 4m (13.1ft)
Western Hemisphere Heaviest Hailstone 0.88 kg (1.94lb) 23/7 (July)/2010   Vivian, South Dakota 43°55'N, 100°17'W 581 meters (1907 ft)
Northern Hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4 (April)/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)
Southern Hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4 (April)/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Eastern Hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4 (April)/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Western Hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4 (April)/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)

Continental Weather & Climate Extremes: Based on World Meteorological Organization Defined Regions

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WMO Region Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
WMO Region I: Africa Highest Temperature 55.0°C (131°F) 7/7 (July)/1931 unknown Kebili, Tunisia 33°42'N, 8°58'E 38.1m (125ft)
WMO Region II: Asia Highest Temperature Currently under investigation  
WMO Region III: South America Highest Temperature 48.9°C (120°F) 11/12 (December)/1905   Rivadavia, Argentina 24°10'S, 62°54'W 205m (672.6 ft)
WMO Region IV: North America Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7 (July)/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°28'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1 (January)/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe (including Middle East/Greenland) Highest Temperature 54°C (129°F) 21/6 (June)/1942   Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel 32°25'N, 35°32'E -220m (-722 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe (Continental) Highest Temperature 48.0°C (118.4°F) 10/7 (July)/1977 1956-present  Athens, Greece (and Elefsina, Greece) 38°06'N, 23°47'W 236m (774 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region (all land/sea south of 60&degS) Highest Temperature 19.8°C (67.6°F) 30/1 (January)/1982 Signy Research Station (UK) 1947-present (summer only: 1996 on) 60°43' S, 45°36' W 7m (23.0 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region (mainland & adjoining islands) Highest Temperature 17.5°C (63.5°F) 24/3 (April)/2015 Esperanza Research Station (Argentina) 1953-present 63°24' S, 56°59' W 13m( (42.7 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region (plateau>2500 m) Highest Temperature -7.0°C (19.4°F) 28/12 (December)/1989 AWS D-80 inland of the Adélie Coast 14/1/ 1983 to 1/1/2001 70°6' S, 134°53'E 2500m( (8202 ft)
WMO Region I: Africa Lowest Temperature -23.9°C (-11°F) 11/2 (February)/1935 1912-present Ifrane, Morocco 33°30'N, 5°06'W 1635m (5364 ft)
WMO Region II: Asia Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2 (February)/1892, 7/2 (February)/1892
2. 6/2 (February)/1933
  1. Verkhoyansk, Russia,
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
WMO Region III: South America Lowest Temperature -32.8°C (-27°F) 1/6 (June)/1907   Sarmiento, Argentina 54°21'S 68°11'W 268m (879 ft)
WMO Region IV: North America Lowest Temperature -63.0°C (-81.4°F) 3/2 (February)/1947 1943-1966 Snag, Yukon Territory, Canada 140°22'W, 62°23'N 646m (2120 ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific Lowest Temperature -25.6°C (-14.0°F) 17/7 (July)/1903 1897-present Ranfurly in New Zealand 45°08'S, 170°06'E 423m (1388 ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific (Australia, only) Lowest Temperature -23°C (-9.4°F) 29/6/1994   Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 36°31'S, 148°19'E 1755m (5758 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe (including Middle East/Greenland) Lowest Temperature -66.1°C (-87°F) 9/1 (January)/1954 11/1952-6/1954 Northice, Greenland 78°04'N, 38°29'W 2341m (7680 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe (Continental) Lowest Temperature -58.1°C (-72.6°F) 31/12 (December)/1978   Ust 'Schugor, Russia 57°45'E, 64°15'N 85m (279 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-128.6°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
WMO Region I: Africa Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 10.287m (405.0")   32 years Debundscha, Cameroon 4°06'N, 8°59'E 9m (30 ft)
WMO Region II: Asia Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.872m (467.4")   38 years Mawsynram, India 25°18'N, 91°35'E 1431m (4695 ft)
WMO Region III: South America Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.99 m (354.0")   29 years Quibdo, Colombia 5°41'N, 76°40'W 70m (230 ft)
WMO Region IV: North America Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 7m (276") 1923-1935; 1998-2000 15 years Henderson Lake, BC, Canada 49°88'N, 125°08'W 3.66m (12 ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.64m (460.0")   30 years Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, Hawaii, USA 22°04'N, 159°29'W 1569m (5148ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific (Australia only) Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.034m (316.3")   34 years Bellenden Ker, Queensland 17°16'S, 145°51'E 1555m (5102 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 4.593m (180.8") 1961-1990 30 years Crkvice, Montenegro 43°00'N, 18°30'E 1055m (3461 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region Greatest Precipitation (average annual) >800mm (31.5") water equivalent (460.0")   Jul 1996–Jun 1999 along the coast of East and West Antarctica, and over the Antarctic Peninsula
WMO Region I: Africa Least Precipitation (average annual) < 2.54mm (< 0.1")   39 years Wadi Halfa, Sudan 21°47'N, 31°22'E 180m (590 ft)
WMO Region II: Asia Least Precipitation (average annual) 45.7mm (1.8")   50 years Aden, Yemen 12°45'N, 45°4'E 19m (63 ft)
WMO Region III: South America Least Precipitation (average annual) 0.76mm (0.03")   59 years Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213 ft)
WMO Region IV: North America Least Precipitation (average annual) 30.5 mm (1.2")   14 years Batagues, Mexico 32°33'N, 115°04'W 21m (69 ft)
WMO Region V: Southwest Pacific Least Precipitation (average annual) 102.9mm (4.05")   42 years Troudaninna, South Australia 29°03'S, 139°10'E 14m (46 ft)
WMO Region VI: Europe (continental) Least Precipitation (average annual) 162.6mm (6.4")   25 years Astrakhan, Russia 46°22'N, 48°00'E 20m (66 ft)
WMO Region VII: Antarctic Region Least Precipitation (average annual) 2mm (0.08")   10 years Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station 90°S 2,835m (9,301 ft)

World Tornado Records

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Tornado Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
Highest Mortality: Tornado estimated 1,300 individuals 26 /4 (April) /1989 1873-present Manikganj district, Bangladesh 22.80°S;, 90.1°E;  
Longest-lasting / Greatest Distance Traveled (single tornado) 352.4km (219 miles) / 3.5 hours duration 18/3/1925   Ellington MO USA to Princeton IN USA    
Biggest (Numerical) Tornado Outbreak 207 Tornadoes 27/4 (April)/2011 1787- present Southeastern United States    
Widest Tornado (maximum diameter) Nearly 4000m (2.5 mi.) in width 22/5/2004   Hallam, NE F4 Tornado 40°34'N, 96°47'W 451m (1480 ft)
Calendar Month with Greatest number of Tornadoes 543 tornadoes 5 (May)/2003 1950- present United States    
Highest Recorded Tornadic Wind Speed 135m/s (302 mph) 3/5 (May)/1999 ~1996- present Bridge Creek, OK USA 35°14'N, 97°44'W 416m (1365 ft)
Longest Tornado Transport A personal check carried 359 km (223 mi.) 11/4 (April)/1991 1871- present Stockton, KS USA to Winnetoon, NE USA    

World Tropical Cyclone Records

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Tropical Cyclone Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
Highest Mortality: Tropical Cyclone estimated 300,000 individuals 12-13/11 (Nov)/1970 1873-present coastal Bangladesh 22.3°N;, 91.8°W;
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (World and Eastern Hemisphere) 870mb (25.69") 12/10 (October)/1979 1951- present Typhoon Tip in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (Western Hemisphere) 872mb (26.75") 1200 UTC 23 / 10 (October)/ 2015 1951- present Hurricane Patricia in eastern Pacific Ocean 17°18'N, 105°47'W
Most Intense - by Maximum Sustained Surface Wind (TIE) 95m/s (185 kt, 215 mph) 12/9 (September)/1961 1945- present Typhoon Nancy in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 15°30'N, 137°30'E
Most Intense - by Maximum Sustained Surface Wind (TIE) 95m/s (185 kt, 215 mph) 1200 UTC 23 / 10 (October)/ 2015 1951- present Hurricane Patricia in eastern Pacific Ocean 17°18'N, 105°47'W
Maximum Surface Wind Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2 m/s (253mph; 220 kt 1055 UTC, 10/4 (April)/1996 1949-present Barrow Island, Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E
Fastest Intensification 100mb (976 to 876 mb) in just under 24 hours 22-23/9 (September)/1983 1951- present Typhoon Forrest in Northwest Pacific Ocean 18°0'N, 136°0'E
Highest Storm Surge 13m (42 feet) 5/3 (March)/1899   Tropical Cyclone Mahina; Bathurst Bay, Queensland, Australia 14°15'S, 144°23'E
First Identified South Atlantic Hurricane 28/3 (March)/2004 1966-present Tropical Cyclone Catarina; state of Santa Catarina, Brazil approximately 27°S, 48°W
Largest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34 kt, 39mph] extending 1100km (675 mi) from center 12/10 (October)/1979 1945- present Typhoon Tip in Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Smallest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34kt, 39mph] extending 50km (30 mi) from center 24/12 (December)/1974 1956- present Tropical Cyclone Tracy near Darwin, Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Longest Lasting Tropical Cyclone 31 days 10/8 (August)/1994- 10/9 (September)/1994 1945- present Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Longest Distance Traveled by Tropical Cyclone 13280 km (7165 st. mi.) 10/8 (August)/1994- 10/9 (September)/1994 1961-present (satellite era) Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Smallest eye 6.7km (4 mile) 24/12 (December)/1974 1956-present Tropical Cyclone Tracy at Darwin Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Largest eye 90km (56 mile) 21/2 (February)/1979 1956-present Tropical Cycle Kerry, Coral Sea 17°30'S, 154°06'W
Largest Rainfall of Tropical Cyclones Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
12 hr 1.144m (45.0") 7-8/1 (January)/1966 1966-1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°14'S, 55°41'E
24 hr 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1 (January)/1966 1966- 1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°15'S, 55°40'E
48 hr 2.467m (97.1") 7-9/4 (April)/1958 1968- present Unnamed Tropical Cyclone In South Indian Ocean 21°00'S, 55°26'E
72 hr 3.930m (154.72") 24-27/2 (February) /2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
96 hr 4.936m (194.33") 24-28/2 (February)/2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
10-day 5.678m (223.5") 18-27/1 (January)/1980 1968- present Tropical Cyclone Hyacinte in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E

World Meteorological-Related Phenomena Records

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Phenomena Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
World's Highest Significant Wave Height by Ship Observation 18.5 m (60.7 ft) 2214 UTC 8/2 (February)/2000 North Atlantic 57°30'N, 12°42'W 0m (0 ft)
World’s Highest Significant Wave Height by Buoy 19.0 m (62.3 ft) 0600 UTC 4/02 (February)/2013   North Atlantic 59°07'N, 11°42'W 0m (0 ft)