World Weather/Climate Extremes Website

World Meteorological Organization

Global Weather & Climate Extremes

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WMO Weather & Climate Extremes Map

On-going Investigations:

World Extreme Highest Adjusted Sea Level Pressure (Above 750 meters) Record

Widest Tornado (maximum diameter) Record

World Highest Annual Precipitation Record: Completed, see below

World Highest 48-hour Rainfall Record: Completed: a new World Weather Extreme, see below

Weather & Climate Extremes News:

If you are interested in Mitigation of Climate Change have a look at the latest report issued by the IPCC.
IPCC Mitigation Report

A WMO international panel of meteorologists and climatologists from Argentina, Columbia, France, Germany, India, Morocco, Spain and the United States has recently completed an investigation of two potential world record extremes. First, an assessment of the precipitation record at Puerto Lopez, Columbia was conducted to ascertain if that location could be established as the highest annual precipitation recording location for the Earth. The committee recommended (and the WMO Rapporteurs accepted) to not accept at this time the Puerto Lopez extreme as “highest annually averaged precipitation” extreme. This is based on the assessment that the Puerto Lopez location did not meet WMO guidelines for establishment of a 30-year normal for the period 1981-2009. Consequently, the WMO is leaving the category of “highest annually averaged precipitation” extreme vacant at this time. If more data from Puerto Lopez or another claimant for this extreme is brought to the attention of the WMO, a new evaluation committee may be established. Second, this international panel of meteorologists and climatologists has assessed the precipitation record at Cherrapunji in India on 15–16 June, 1995. They have recommended (and the WMO Rapporteurs accepted)the rainfall record accumulated during this 48-hour period as being the new "highest 48-hour precipitation for the world." The accumulated precipitation during that 48-hour period at Cherrapunji was 2493mm. That exceeds the old WMO recognized extreme value of 2467mm which occurred at Aurère, La Réunion on 7-9/4/1958.

World Weather Element World Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Site Observations Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
temperature Highest Temp 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179ft) )
Lowest Temp -89.2°C (-128.5°F) 21/7/1983 1912- present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11,220 ft)
pressure Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Below 750m 1083.8 hPa 31/12/1968 1961- present Agata, Russia 66°53'N, 93°28'E 261m (856.3ft)
Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Above 750m 1084.8 hPa 19/12/2001 1963- present Tosontsengel Mongolia 48°44'N, 98°16'E 1724.6m (5658.1 ft)
Lowest Sea Lvl Air Pressure (excluding tornadoes) 870 hPa 12/10/1979 1951- present Eye of Typhoon Tip 16°44'N, 137°46'E 0m
rainfall Greatest 1-Min Rainfall 31.2mm (1.23") 4/7/1956 1948- present Unionville, MD, USA 38°48'N, 76°08'W 152m (499ft)
Greatest 60-Min Rainfall 305mm (12.0") 22/6/1947   Holt, MO, USA 39°27'N, 94°20'W 263m (863ft)
Greatest 12-Hr Rainfall 1.144 m (45.0'') 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 24-Hr Rainfall 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 48-Hr Rainfall 2.493m (98.15") 15-16/6/1995 1850-present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
Greatest 72-Hr Rainfall 3.929m (154.7") 24-26/2/2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 96-Hr Rainfall 4.869m (191.7") 24-27/2/2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 12-Mo Rainfall 26.47m (1042") 8/1860-7/1861 1851- present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
hail Heaviest Hailstone 1.02kg (2.25lb) 14/4/1986   Gopalganj district, Bangladesh 23°00'N, 89°56'E 4m (13.1ft)
aridity Longest Dry Period 173 months 10/1903-1/1918   Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213ft)
wind Maximum Gust 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Maximum Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4/1996 1949-present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)

Hemispheric Weather & Climate Extremes

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Continent/ Hemisphere Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
northern hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'@ -54m (-179ft) )
southern hemisphere Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
eastern hemisphere Highest Temperature 54°C (129.2°F) 21/6/1942   Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel 32°25'N, 35°32'E -220m (-722 ft)
western hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
northern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2/1892, 7/2/1892
2. 6/2/1933
1. Verkhoyansk, Russia
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
southern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
eastern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
western hemisphere Lowest Temperature -66.1°C (-87°F) 9/1/1954 11/1952-6/1954 Northice, Greenland 78°04'N, 38°29'W 2341m (7680 ft)
northern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
southern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
eastern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
western hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
northern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)
southern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
eastern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
western hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)

Continental Weather & Climate Extremes

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Continent/ Hemisphere Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
north america Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°28'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
south america Highest Temperature 48.9°C (120°F) 11/12/1905   Rivadavia, Argentina 33°11'S, 68°12'W 668m (2192 ft)
europe Highest Temperature 48.0°C (118.4°F) 10/7/1977 1956-present  Athens, Greece (and Elefsina, Greece) 38°06'N, 23°47'W 236m (774 ft)
asia Highest Temperature 54°C (129.2°F) 21/6/1942   Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel 32°25'N, 35°32'E -220m (-722 ft)
africa Highest Temperature 55.0°C (131°F) 7/7/1931 unknown Kebili, Tunisia 33°42'N, 8°58'E 38.1m (125ft)
australia Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
oceania Highest Temperature 42.2°C (108°F) 29/4/1912   Tuguegarao, Philippines 17°37'N, 121°42'E 206m (676 ft)
antarctica Highest Temperature 15°C (59°F) 1/5/1974   Vanda Station, Antarctica 77°32'S, 161°40'E 15m (49 ft)
north america Lowest Temperature -63.0°C (-81.4°F) 3/2/1947 1943-1966 Snag, Yukon Territory, Canada 140°22'W, 62°23'N 646m (2120 ft)
south america Lowest Temperature -32.8°C (-27°F) 1/6/1907   Sarmiento, Argentina 54°21'S 68°11'W 268m (879 ft)
europe Lowest Temperature -58.1°C (-72.6°F) 31/12/1978   Ust 'Schugor, Russia 57°45'E, 64°15'N 85m (279 ft)
africa Lowest Temperature -23.9°C (-11°F) 11/2/1935 1912-present Ifrane, Morocco 33°30'N, 5°06'W 1635m (5364 ft)
australia Lowest Temperature -23°C (-9.4°F) 29/6/1994   Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 36°31'S, 148°19'E 1755m (5758 ft)
antarctica Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
asia Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2/1892, 7/2/1892
2. 6/2/1933
  1. Verkhoyansk, Russia,
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
south america Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.99 m (354.0")   29 years Quibdo, Colombia 5°41'N, 76°40'W 70m (230 ft)
asia Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.872m (467.4")   38 years Mawsynram, India 25°18'N, 91°35'E 1431m (4695 ft)
africa Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 10.287m (405.0")   32 years Debundscha, Cameroon 4°06'N, 8°59'E 9m (30 ft)
australia Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.034m (316.3")   34 years Bellenden Ker, Queensland 17°16'S, 145°51'E 1555m (5102 ft)
north america Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 7m (276") 1923-1935; 1998-2000 15 years Henderson Lake, BC, Canada 49°88'N, 125°08'W 3.66m (12 ft)
europe Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 4.648m (183.0")   22 years Crkvica, Bosnia- Hercegovina 43°54'N, 17°43'E 1310m (4298 ft)
antarctica Greatest Precipitation (average annual) >800mm (31.5") water equivalent (460.0")   Jul 1996–Jun 1999 along the coast of East
and West Antarctica, and over the Antarctic Peninsula
oceania Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.64m (460.0")   30 years Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, Hawaii, USA 22°04'N, 159°29'W 1569m (5148ft)
south america Least Precipitation (average annual) 0.76mm (0.03")   59 years Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213 ft)
asia Least Precipitation (average annual) 45.7mm (1.8")   50 years Aden, Yemen 12°45'N, 45°4'E 19m (63 ft)
africa Least Precipitation (average annual) < 2.54mm (< 0.1")   39 years Wadi Halfa, Sudan 21°47'N, 31°22'E 180m (590 ft)
australia Least Precipitation (average annual) 102.9mm (4.05")   42 years Troudaninna, South Australia 29°03'S, 139°10'E 14m (46 ft)
north america Least Precipitation (average annual) 30.5 mm (1.2")   14 years Batagues, Mexico 32°33'N, 115°04'W 21m (69 ft)
europe Least Precipitation (average annual) 162.6mm (6.4")   25 years Astrakhan, Russia 46°22'N, 48°00'E 20m (66 ft)
antarctica Least Precipitation (average annual) 2mm (0.08")   10 years Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station 90°S 2,835m (9,301 ft)
oceania Least Precipitation (average annual) 188mm (7.41")   1972-1982 Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii, USA 19°49'N, 155°28'W 4,200m (13,780 ft)

World Tornado Records

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Tornado Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
World's Deadliest Single Tornado 1,300 killed / 12,000 injured 26/4/1989 1091- present Manikganj District Bangladesh 23°50'N, 90°5'E 9m (30 ft)
Longest-lasting / Greatest Distance Traveled (single tornado) 352.4km (219 miles) / 3.5 hours duration 18/3/1925   Ellington MO USA to Princeton IN USA    
Biggest (Numerical) Tornado Outbreak 207 Tornadoes 27/4/2011 1787- present Southeastern United States    
Widest Tornado (maximum diameter) Nearly 4000m (2.5 mi.) in width 22/5/2004   Hallam, NE F4 Tornado 40°34'N, 96°47'W 451m (1480 ft)
Calendar Month with Greatest number of Tornadoes 543 tornadoes 5/2003 1950- present United States    
Highest Recorded Tornadic Wind Speed 135m/s (302 mph) 3/5/1999 ~1996- present Bridge Creek, OK USA 35°14'N, 97°44'W 416m (1365 ft)
Longest Tornado Transport A personal check carried 359 km (223 mi.) 11/4/1991 1871- present Stockton, KS USA to Winnetoon, NE USA    

World Tropical Cyclone Records

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Tropical Cyclone Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (World and Eastern Hemisphere) 870mb (25.69") 12/10/1979 1951- present Typhoon Tip in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (western hemisphere) 882mb (26.05") 19/10/2005 1951- present Hurricane Wilma in Caribbean Sea 17°18'N, 82°48'W
Most Intense - by Maximum Sustained Surface Wind 95m/s (185 kt, 215 mph) 12/9/1961 1945- present Typhoon Nancy in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 15°30'N, 137°30'E
Maximum Surface Wind Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2 m/s (253mph; 220 kt 1055 UTC, 10/4/1996 1949-present Barrow Island, Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E
Northern Hemispheric Maximum Surface Wind Gust for Tropical Cyclone 94.4 m/s (211.3 mph; 183.5 kt 2235 UTC, 30/9/2008 1949-present Pinar del Rio, Cuba 22°34'N, 83°40'W
Fastest Intensification 100mb (976 to 876 mb) in just under 24 hours 22-23/9/1983 1951- present Typhoon Forrest in Northwest Pacific Ocean 18°0'N, 136°0'E
Highest Storm Surge 13m (42 feet) 5/3/1899   Tropical Cyclone Mahina; Bathurst Bay, Queensland, Australia 14°15'S, 144°23'E
First Identified South Atlantic Hurricane 28/3/2004 1966-present Tropical Cyclone Catarina; state of Santa Catarina, Brazil approximately 27°S, 48°W
Largest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34 kt, 39mph] extending 1100km (675 mi) from center 12/10/1979 1945- present Typhoon Tip in Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Smallest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34kt, 39mph] extending 50km (30 mi) from center 24/12/1974 1956- present Tropical Cyclone Tracy near Darwin, Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Longest Lasting Tropical Cyclone 31 days 10/8/1994- 10/9/1994 1945- present Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Longest Distance Traveled by Tropical Cyclone 13280 km (7165 st. mi.) 10/8/1994- 10/9/1994 1961-present (satellite era) Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Smallest eye 6.7km (4 mile) 24/12/1974 1956-present Tropical Cyclone Tracy at Darwin Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Largest eye 90km (56 mile) 21/2/1979 1956-present Tropical Cycle Kerry, Coral Sea 17°30'S, 154°06'W
Largest Rainfall of Tropical Cyclones Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
12 hr 1.144m (45.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°14'S, 55°41'E
24 hr 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1/1966 1966- 1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°14'S, 55°41'E
48 hr 2.467m (97.1") 7-9/4/1958 1952-1980/ 2004- present Unnamed Tropical Cyclone In South Indian Ocean 21°00'S, 55°26'E
72 hr 3.929m (154.7") 24-26/2/2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
96 hr 4.869m (191.7") 24-27/2/2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
10-day 5.678m (223.5") 18-27/1/1980 1968- present Tropical Cyclone Hyacinte in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E

World Meteorological-Related Phenomena Records

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Phenomena Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
World's Highest Significant Wave Height by Ship Observation 29.05 m (95.03 ft) 2214 UTC 8/2/2000 North Atlantic 57°30'N, 12°42'W 0m (0 ft)
World’s Highest Significant Wave Height by Buoy 18.275 m (59.96 ft) 2054 UTC 8/12/2007   North Atlantic 52°31'N, 18°28'W 0m (0 ft)