World Weather/Climate Extremes Website

Go To Interactive WMO Weather & Climate Extremes Map

Go To Tabular WMO Weather & Climate Extremes Archive

Note: Some entries are under construction as we transition to the official WMO Region categories. We thank you for your understanding and patience.

On-going Investigations:

WMO Region 5 (Southwest Pacific) Lowest Temperature Extreme

Global Lightning Extremes

WMO Region 1 (Asia) Highest Temperature Extreme

Highest Morality Rates for (a) Tropical Cyclones, (b) Tornadoes, (c) Hail and (d) Lightning

Widest Tornado (maximum diameter) Record

Weather & Climate Extremes News:

We have received, from Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Argentina, preliminary measurements taken at one of Argentine bases in Antarctica, Base Esperanza, on 24 March 2015 of a temperature of 17.5°C (63.5°F). If confirmed, this would be a new high temperature extreme for Antarctica. The WMO will be investigating these reports.

At the present time, the WMO Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes does not recognize or list any official world snowfall records. This is because, in the past, accurate and official snowfall measurements have proven to be rather limited in geographic space around the world and because accurate snowfall measurement have, in the past, proven markedly difficult to verify (for example, even making snowfall measurements too often can affect the total snowfall value as snow compression is a critical factor in snowfall measurement). However,the WMO is currently evaluating the addition of world snowfall extremes as a new category for the WMO Archive of Weather and Climate Extremes. We will likely be adding it to the Archive in the near future. When we do so, we certainly will be investigating March 2015 weather reports from Italy as a possible record snowfall extreme.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has launched the complete version of the Synthesis Report, the concluding installment of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) IPCC Synthesis Report (AR5)

The designations employed on this WMO website and the presentation of material on this website do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the WMO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by WMO in preference to others of a similar nature which are not mentioned or advertised.

World Meteorological Organization

Global Weather & Climate Extremes Archive

Back to Top

World Weather Element World Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Site Observations Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
temperature Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179ft) )
Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-128.5°F) 21/7/1983 1912- present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11,220 ft)
pressure Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Below 750m 1083.8 hPa 31/12/1968 1961- present Agata, Russia 66°53'N, 93°28'E 261m (856.3ft)
Highest Sea Lvl Air Pressure Above 750m 1089.1 hPa 30/12/2004 1963- present Tosontsengel Mongolia 48°44'N, 98°16'E 1724.6m (5658.1 ft)
Lowest Sea Lvl Air Pressure (excluding tornadoes) 870 hPa 12/10/1979 1951- present Eye of Typhoon Tip 16°44'N, 137°46'E 0m
rainfall Greatest 1-Min Rainfall 31.2mm (1.23") 4/7/1956 1948- present Unionville, MD, USA 38°48'N, 76°08'W 152m (499ft)
Greatest 60-Min Rainfall 305mm (12.0") 22/6/1947   Holt, MO, USA 39°27'N, 94°20'W 263m (863ft)
Greatest 12-Hr Rainfall 1.144 m (45.0'') 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 24-Hr Rainfall 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Réunion 21°14'S, 55°41'E 2290m (7513ft)
Greatest 48-Hr Rainfall 2.493m (98.15") 15-16/6/1995 1850-present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
Greatest 72-Hr Rainfall 3.930m (154.72") 24-26/2/2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 96-Hr Rainfall 4.936m (194.33") 24-27/2/2007 1968-present Cratère Commerson, La Réunion 21°12'S, 55°39'E 2310m (7579ft)
Greatest 12-Mo Rainfall 26.47m (1042") 8/1860-7/1861 1851- present Cherrapunji, India 25°02'N, 91°08'E 1313m (4308ft)
hail Heaviest Hailstone 1.02kg (2.25lb) 14/4/1986   Gopalganj district, Bangladesh 23°00'N, 89°56'E 4m (13.1ft)
aridity Longest Dry Period 173 months 10/1903-1/1918   Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213ft)
wind Maximum Gust 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
Maximum Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2m/s (253mph; 220kt) 1055 UTC 10/4/1996 1949-present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
lightning Under Investigation

Hemispheric Weather & Climate Extremes

Back to Top

Hemisphere Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
northern hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'@ -54m (-179ft) )
southern hemisphere Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
eastern hemisphere Highest Temperature 54°C (129°F) 21/6/1942   Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel 32°25'N, 35°32'E -220m (-722 ft)
western hemisphere Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°27'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
northern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2/1892, 7/2/1892
2. 6/2/1933
1. Verkhoyansk, Russia
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
southern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
eastern hemisphere Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
western hemisphere Lowest Temperature -66.1°C (-87°F) 9/1/1954 11/1952-6/1954 Northice, Greenland 78°04'N, 38°29'W 2341m (7680 ft)
northern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
southern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
eastern hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1825mm (72.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Foc-Foc, La Reunion 21°14'S, 55°40'E 2990m (9810ft)
western hemisphere 24-hour Rainfall 1633.98mm (64.3") 21-22/10/2005   Isla Mujeres, Mexico 21°15'N, 86°44'W 3m (10 ft)
eastern hemisphere Heaviest Hailstone 1.02kg (2.25lb) 14/4/1986   Gopalganj district, Bangladesh 23°00'N, 89°56'E 4m (13.1ft)
western hemisphere Heaviest Hailstone 0.88 kg (1.94lb) 23/7/2010   Vivian, South Dakota 43°55'N, 100°17'W 581 meters (1907 ft)
northern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)
southern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
eastern hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 112.3m/s (253mph; 220kt) 10/4/1996 1932- present Barrow Island Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E 64m (210ft)
western hemisphere Maximum Wind Gust 103.3 m/s (231 mph) 12/4/1934 1932-present Mt. Washington NH USA 44°16'N, 71°18'W 1856m (6089 ft)

Continental Weather & Climate Extremes: Based on World Meteorological Organization Defined Regions

Back to Top

WMO Region Continental Element Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
wmo region 1: africa Highest Temperature 55.0°C (131°F) 7/7/1931 unknown Kebili, Tunisia 33°42'N, 8°58'E 38.1m (125ft)
wmo region 2: asia Highest Temperature Currently under investigation  
wmo region 3: south america Highest Temperature 48.9°C (120°F) 11/12/1905   Rivadavia, Argentina 33°11'S, 68°12'W 668m (2192 ft)
wmo region 4: north america Highest Temperature 56.7°C (134°F) 10/7/1913 1911- present Furnace Creek Ranch, CA, USA 36°28'N, 116°51'W -54m (-179 ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific Highest Temperature 50.7°C (123°F) 2/1/1960 59 years Oodnadatta, Australia 27°32'S, 135°26'E 112m (367 ft)
wmo region 6: europe (including middle east/greenland) Highest Temperature 54°C (129°F) 21/6/1942   Tirat Tsvi (Tirat Zevi) Israel 32°25'N, 35°32'E -220m (-722 ft)
wmo region 6: europe (continental) Highest Temperature 48.0°C (118.4°F) 10/7/1977 1956-present  Athens, Greece (and Elefsina, Greece) 38°06'N, 23°47'W 236m (774 ft)
wmo region 7: antarctica Highest Temperature 15°C (59°F) 1/5/1974   Vanda Station, Antarctica 77°32'S, 161°40'E 15m (49 ft)
wmo region 1: africa Lowest Temperature -23.9°C (-11°F) 11/2/1935 1912-present Ifrane, Morocco 33°30'N, 5°06'W 1635m (5364 ft)
wmo region 2: asia Lowest Temperature -67.8°C (-90°F) 1. 5/2/1892, 7/2/1892
2. 6/2/1933
  1. Verkhoyansk, Russia,
2. Oimekon, Russia
1. 67°33'N, 133°23'E
2. 63°28'N, 142°23'E
1. 107m (350 ft)
2. 800m (2625 ft)
wmo region 3: south america Lowest Temperature -32.8°C (-27°F) 1/6/1907   Sarmiento, Argentina 54°21'S 68°11'W 268m (879 ft)
wmo region 4: north america Lowest Temperature -63.0°C (-81.4°F) 3/2/1947 1943-1966 Snag, Yukon Territory, Canada 140°22'W, 62°23'N 646m (2120 ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific Lowest Temperature -xx°C (-x.x°F)   under investigation xx°x'S, xxx°xx'E xm (x ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific (australia, only) Lowest Temperature -23°C (-9.4°F) 29/6/1994   Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 36°31'S, 148°19'E 1755m (5758 ft)
wmo region 6: europe (including middle east/greenland) Lowest Temperature -66.1°C (-87°F) 9/1/1954 11/1952-6/1954 Northice, Greenland 78°04'N, 38°29'W 2341m (7680 ft)
wmo region 6: europe (continental) Lowest Temperature -58.1°C (-72.6°F) 31/12/1978   Ust 'Schugor, Russia 57°45'E, 64°15'N 85m (279 ft)
wmo region 7: antarctica Lowest Temperature -89.2°C (-129°F) 21/7/1983 1912-present Vostok, Antarctica 77°32'S, 106°40'E 3420m (11220 ft)
wmo region 1: africa Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 10.287m (405.0")   32 years Debundscha, Cameroon 4°06'N, 8°59'E 9m (30 ft)
wmo region 2: asia Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.872m (467.4")   38 years Mawsynram, India 25°18'N, 91°35'E 1431m (4695 ft)
wmo region 3: south america Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.99 m (354.0")   29 years Quibdo, Colombia 5°41'N, 76°40'W 70m (230 ft)
wmo region 4: north america Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 7m (276") 1923-1935; 1998-2000 15 years Henderson Lake, BC, Canada 49°88'N, 125°08'W 3.66m (12 ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 11.64m (460.0")   30 years Mt. Waialeale, Kauai, Hawaii, USA 22°04'N, 159°29'W 1569m (5148ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific (australia only) Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 8.034m (316.3")   34 years Bellenden Ker, Queensland 17°16'S, 145°51'E 1555m (5102 ft)
wmo region 6: europe Greatest Precipitation (average annual) 4.593m (180.8") 1961-1990 30 years Crkvice, Montenegro 43°00'N, 18°30'E 1055m (3461 ft)
wmo region 7: antarctica Greatest Precipitation (average annual) >800mm (31.5") water equivalent (460.0")   Jul 1996–Jun 1999 along the coast of East and West Antarctica, and over the Antarctic Peninsula
wmo region 1: africa Least Precipitation (average annual) < 2.54mm (< 0.1")   39 years Wadi Halfa, Sudan 21°47'N, 31°22'E 180m (590 ft)
wmo region 2: asia Least Precipitation (average annual) 45.7mm (1.8")   50 years Aden, Yemen 12°45'N, 45°4'E 19m (63 ft)
wmo region 3: south america Least Precipitation (average annual) 0.76mm (0.03")   59 years Arica, Chile 18°29'S, 70°18'W 65m (213 ft)
wmo region 4: north america Least Precipitation (average annual) 30.5 mm (1.2")   14 years Batagues, Mexico 32°33'N, 115°04'W 21m (69 ft)
wmo region 5: southwest pacific Least Precipitation (average annual) 102.9mm (4.05")   42 years Troudaninna, South Australia 29°03'S, 139°10'E 14m (46 ft)
wmo region 6: europe (continental) Least Precipitation (average annual) 162.6mm (6.4")   25 years Astrakhan, Russia 46°22'N, 48°00'E 20m (66 ft)
wmo region 7: antarctica Least Precipitation (average annual) 2mm (0.08")   10 years Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station 90°S 2,835m (9,301 ft)

World Tornado Records

Back to Top

Tornado Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
World's Deadliest Single Tornado 1,300 killed / 12,000 injured 26/4/1989 1091- present Manikganj District Bangladesh 23°50'N, 90°5'E 9m (30 ft)
Longest-lasting / Greatest Distance Traveled (single tornado) 352.4km (219 miles) / 3.5 hours duration 18/3/1925   Ellington MO USA to Princeton IN USA    
Biggest (Numerical) Tornado Outbreak 207 Tornadoes 27/4/2011 1787- present Southeastern United States    
Widest Tornado (maximum diameter) Nearly 4000m (2.5 mi.) in width 22/5/2004   Hallam, NE F4 Tornado 40°34'N, 96°47'W 451m (1480 ft)
Calendar Month with Greatest number of Tornadoes 543 tornadoes 5/2003 1950- present United States    
Highest Recorded Tornadic Wind Speed 135m/s (302 mph) 3/5/1999 ~1996- present Bridge Creek, OK USA 35°14'N, 97°44'W 416m (1365 ft)
Longest Tornado Transport A personal check carried 359 km (223 mi.) 11/4/1991 1871- present Stockton, KS USA to Winnetoon, NE USA    

World Tropical Cyclone Records

Back to Top

Tropical Cyclone Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (World and Eastern Hemisphere) 870mb (25.69") 12/10/1979 1951- present Typhoon Tip in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Most Intense - by Central Pressure (western hemisphere) 882mb (26.05") 19/10/2005 1951- present Hurricane Wilma in Caribbean Sea 17°18'N, 82°48'W
Most Intense - by Maximum Sustained Surface Wind 95m/s (185 kt, 215 mph) 12/9/1961 1945- present Typhoon Nancy in the Northwest Pacific Ocean 15°30'N, 137°30'E
Maximum Surface Wind Gust for Tropical Cyclone 113.2 m/s (253mph; 220 kt 1055 UTC, 10/4/1996 1949-present Barrow Island, Australia 20°49'S, 115°23'E
Northern Hemispheric Maximum Surface Wind Gust for Tropical Cyclone 94.4 m/s (211.3 mph; 183.5 kt 2235 UTC, 30/9/2008 1949-present Pinar del Rio, Cuba 22°34'N, 83°40'W
Fastest Intensification 100mb (976 to 876 mb) in just under 24 hours 22-23/9/1983 1951- present Typhoon Forrest in Northwest Pacific Ocean 18°0'N, 136°0'E
Highest Storm Surge 13m (42 feet) 5/3/1899   Tropical Cyclone Mahina; Bathurst Bay, Queensland, Australia 14°15'S, 144°23'E
First Identified South Atlantic Hurricane 28/3/2004 1966-present Tropical Cyclone Catarina; state of Santa Catarina, Brazil approximately 27°S, 48°W
Largest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34 kt, 39mph] extending 1100km (675 mi) from center 12/10/1979 1945- present Typhoon Tip in Northwest Pacific Ocean 16°44'N, 137°46'E
Smallest Tropical Cyclone (winds from center) Gale winds [17m/s, 34kt, 39mph] extending 50km (30 mi) from center 24/12/1974 1956- present Tropical Cyclone Tracy near Darwin, Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Longest Lasting Tropical Cyclone 31 days 10/8/1994- 10/9/1994 1945- present Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Longest Distance Traveled by Tropical Cyclone 13280 km (7165 st. mi.) 10/8/1994- 10/9/1994 1961-present (satellite era) Hurricane / Typhoon John in Northeast & Northwest Pacific Basins  
Smallest eye 6.7km (4 mile) 24/12/1974 1956-present Tropical Cyclone Tracy at Darwin Australia 12°12'S, 130°00'E
Largest eye 90km (56 mile) 21/2/1979 1956-present Tropical Cycle Kerry, Coral Sea 17°30'S, 154°06'W
Largest Rainfall of Tropical Cyclones Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Tropical Cyclone Latitude/ Longitude
12 hr 1.144m (45.0") 7-8/1/1966 1966-1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°14'S, 55°41'E
24 hr 1.825m (71.8") 7-8/1/1966 1966- 1990 Tropical Cyclone Denise in South Indian Ocean 21°15'S, 55°40'E
48 hr 2.467m (97.1") 7-9/4/1958 1968- present Unnamed Tropical Cyclone In South Indian Ocean 21°00'S, 55°26'E
72 hr 3.930m (154.72") 24-27/2/2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
96 hr 4.936m (194.33") 24-28/2/2007 1968-present Tropical Cyclone Gamede in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E
10-day 5.678m (223.5") 18-27/1/1980 1968- present Tropical Cyclone Hyacinte in South Indian Ocean 21°12'S, 55°39'E

World Meteorological-Related Phenomena Records

Back to Top

Phenomena Characteristic Value Date (D/M/Y) Length of Record Geopolitical Location Longitude/ Latitude Elevation
World's Highest Significant Wave Height by Ship Observation 29.05 m (95.03 ft) 2214 UTC 8/2/2000 North Atlantic 57°30'N, 12°42'W 0m (0 ft)
World’s Highest Significant Wave Height by Buoy 18.275 m (59.96 ft) 2054 UTC 8/12/2007   North Atlantic 52°31'N, 18°28'W 0m (0 ft)